Volvo has developed three run-off-road crash test scenarios. These are the ‘Airborne’ test, ‘Ditch’ test and the ‘Rough road’ test.
The ‘Airborne’ test involves the vehicle leaving the road at 80km/h, launching and having a hard impact on the wheels. The ‘Ditch’ test is designed to replicate the bouncing movement when driving into an 80cm deep ditch and impacting an embankment, which causes high vertical forces. The ‘Rough road’ test creates a bumpy ride in the terrain, producing substantial lateral rolling motions in combination with vertical and longitudinal vehicle motions.

Video source: Volvo